many theories have been developed from time to time for the better understanding of different notions. it allows concepts to be explored in detail so that reasoning and explanations can be given and hence create acceptance. educational theories were developed back in the eighteenth century to understand the reasons and application of education and learning. these have contributed a lot in figuring out the learning process factors that influence learning and why information is accepted or rejected by people. these theories study different behaviors and environments and then accordingly come up with conclusions.
educational theories study various approaches to teaching practice and evaluates why a certain method did or did not work. many theorists have developed different kinds of theories that focus on education teaching and learning. however educational theories fall under four main categories and all other theories are their sub-categories. the four theories of education include progressivism perennialism essentialism and reconstructionism.
progressivism approach suggests that students should be taught things that they have interest in rather than giving them knowledge about anything and everything. their learning should be directed towards their area of interest and an instructor should advise them instead of directing them. perennialism theory believes that environment and situations doesn't affect learning process therefore education level and content should remain the same for all kinds of people. it claims that education should prepare man for life and how different things work. essentialism theory by william bagley states that learning process should be initiated by the instructor rather than the student. the effort has to be applied by the teacher so that the student generates interest in learning. george counts in reconstructionism approach states that the education process educators and students are influenced by social and cultural factors. the learning process should have regard for democratic procedures and should meet the demands of present time. these educational theories have contributed a lot in understanding the education process and the factors that trigger effective learning.